Sentinel: Your Web-Performance Watchman

What Is the Maximum max-age?

Written by on CSS Wizardry.

Table of Contents
  1. max-age
  2. immutable
  3. 31536000 Seconds
  4. 2147483648 Seconds
  5. Does It Matter?

If you wanted to cache a file ‘forever’, you’d probably use a Cache-Control header like this:

Cache-Control: max-age=31536000

This instructs any cache that it may store and reuse a response for one year (60 seconds × 60 minutes × 24 hours × 365 days = 31,536,000 seconds). But why one year? Why not 10 years? Why not max-age=forever? Why not max-age=∞?!

I wondered the same. Let’s find out together.

Like spoilers? See the answer.

It’s 2147483648 seconds, or 68 years. To find out why, read on!


max-age is a Cache-Control directive that instructs a cache that it may store and reuse a response for n seconds from the point at which it entered the cache in question. Once that time has elapsed, the cache should either revalidate the file with the origin server, or do whatever any additional directives may have instructed it to do. But why might we want to have a max-age that equates to forever?


If we’re confident that we can cache a file for a year, we must be also quite confident that it never really changes. After all, a year is a very long time in internet timescales. If we have this degree of confidence that a file won’t change, we can cache the file immutably.

immutable is a relatively new directive that effectively makes a contract with the browser in which we as developers tell the browser: this file will never, ever change, ever; please don’t bother coming back to the server to check for updates.

Let’s say we have a simple source CSS file called button.css. Its content is as follows:

.c-btn {
  background-color: #C0FFEE;

Once our build system has completed, it will fingerprint the file and export it with a unique hash, or fingerprint, in its filename. The MD5 checksum for this file is 7fda1016c4f1eaafc5a4e50a58308b79, so we’d probably end up with a file named button.7fda1016.css.

If we change the colour of the button, the next time we roll a release, the build step will do its thing and now, the following content:

.c-btn {
  background-color: #BADA55;

…would have a checksum of 6bb70b2a68a0e28913a05fb3656639b6. In that case, we’d call the new file button.6bb70b2a.css.

Notice how the content of the original file button.7fda1016.css hasn’t changed; button.7fda1016.css has ceased to exist entirely, and is replaced by a whole new file called button.6bb70b2a.css.

Fingerprinted files never change—they get replaced. This means we can safely cache any fingerprinted file for, well, forever.

But how long is forever?!

31536000 Seconds

Traditionally, developers have set ‘forever’ max-age values at 31536000 seconds, which is a year. Why a year, though? A year isn’t forever. Was 31536000 arrived at by agreement? Or is it specified somewhere? RFC 2616 says of the Expires header:

To mark a response as “never expires,” an origin server sends an Expires date approximately one year from the time the response is sent. HTTP/1.1 servers SHOULD NOT send Expires dates more than one year in the future.

Historically—very historically—caching was bound to approximately one year from the time the response is sent. This restriction was introduced by the long defunct Expires header, and we’re talking about max-age, which is a Cache-Control directive. Does Cache-Control say anything different?

2147483648 Seconds

It turns out there is a maximum value for max-age, and it’s defined in RFC 9111’s delta-seconds:

A recipient parsing a delta-seconds value and converting it to binary form ought to use an arithmetic type of at least 31 bits of non-negative integer range. If a cache receives a delta-seconds value greater than the greatest integer it can represent, or if any of its subsequent calculations overflows, the cache MUST consider the value to be 2147483648 (231) or the greatest positive integer it can conveniently represent.

The spec says caches should accept a maximum max-age value of whatever-it’s-been-told, falling back to 2,147,483,648 seconds (which is 68 years), or failing that, falling back to as-long-as-it-possibly-can. This wording means that, technically, there isn’t a maximum as long as the cache understands the value you passed it. Theoretically, you could set a max-age=9999999999 (that’s 317 years!) or higher. If the cache can work with it, that’s how long it will store it. If it can’t handle 317 years, it should fall back to 2,147,483,648 seconds, and if it can’t handle that, whatever the biggest value it can handle.

And why 2,147,483,648 seconds?

In a 32-bit system, the largest possible integer that can be represented in binary form is 01111111111111111111111111111111: a zero followed by 31 ones (the first zero is reserved for switching between positive and negative values, so 11111111111111111111111111111111 would be equal to -2,147,483,648).

Does It Matter?

Honestly, no.

It’s unlikely that a year would ever be insufficient, and it’s also unlikely that any cache would store a file for that long anyway: browsers periodically empty their cache as part of their general housekeeping, so even files that have been stored for a year might not actually make it that long.

This post was mostly an exercise in curiosity. But, if you wanted to, you could go ahead and swap all of your 31536000s for 2147483648s. It works in all major browsers.

Did this help? We can do way more!

Hi there, I’m Harry Roberts. I am an award-winning Consultant Web Performance Engineer, designer, developer, writer, and speaker from the UK. I write, Tweet, speak, and share code about measuring and improving site-speed. You should hire me.

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