Written by Harry Roberts on CSS Wizardry.
Apple recently announced their updated MacBook line, introducing the Touch Bar that would be replacing the physical function row, including the escape key. If, like me, you’re a Vim user, that might have quite an impact: how best to prepare for it?
Vim is a modal editor. Unlike most
text editors—where you’re ready to type as soon as it opens—Vim loads itself in
Normal mode, and you have to make a conscious choice to enter Insert mode in
order to begin typing. Once you’ve finished typing, you need to get yourself
back into Normal mode again. To do this, one of the most common options is to
hit Escape, or
<Esc> is used is because Bill Joy, the author of Vim’s predecessor,
Vi, used an ADM-3A terminal whose
<Esc> key was located where today’s
more convenient than its top-left location today.
There are actually many other modes besides Insert and Normal, and switching
from them back into Normal mode usually requires hitting
<Esc> as well. Here
you can see Vim users’ predicament… the Escape key is very important to us.
How can we switch between modes without having an Escape key?1
For almost as long as I’ve been using Vim—which is a long time
jk to leave Insert mode. These mappings are on the Home
Row, so always easy to
reach, and the letter pairs very rarely (if ever) occur in the English language.
If there were words that contained
jk next to each other then I would
be flung straight into Normal mode any time I tried to write them. (The reason I
kk to Escape is because it does occur within words, e.g.
bookkeeper. (Although I think that might be the first time I’ve ever actually
written the word bookkeeper. (Interestingly, bookkeeper is the only English
word that has three consecutive double letters.)))
This means that any time I’m typing, hitting either
jj gets me back
into Normal mode and leaves my fingers primed for moving up or down. I always
use this instead of
<Esc> to get from Insert to Normal.
You can do this too by adding these lines to your
" Make `jj` and `jk` throw you into normal mode inoremap jj <esc> inoremap jk <esc>
This creates an
<Esc>. For more information on mapping either run
:help map.txt, or see the
This only really helps us out if we’re in Normal mode though: if we’re in Visual mode it’s just going to move our selection up or down, and Command mode will literally write the characters out. What else can we do?
A lot of people also like to map CapsLock to
<Esc>, however that needs to be
done at OS level with a number of different third-party tools. I personally
don’t like the idea of having a system-wide keyboard change for the sake of just
my text editor, but that’s just me.
If you’re running macOS Sierra, you can now natively map CapsLock to
jk are remapped to act like
<Esc>, it turns out that
there are some native alternatives to
<Esc> that we can use across modes.
As I mentioned, hitting
jk in Command mode will be interpreted
literally, and in Visual mode they will navigate, so in these modes we can use
<C-[> in Vim-speak) or
<C-c> in Vim-speak).
The Vim help even says:
Note: If your
<Esc>key is hard to hit on your keyboard, train yourself to use
So, whenever you’re in any modes other than Insert, reach for
<C-c> instead of
<C-c> is probably going to be a little easier to
remember, because you probably recognise it as the cancel signal in from your
shell, however there are some subtle differences between the two…
<C-[> acts almost universally identically to
Esc, so there’s nothing real
of note there. What does need a little further mention is
<C-c> is a cancel signal, so its job is just to get you straight out of
whatever you’re doing and back into Insert mode as fast as possible. This means
<C-c> will not complete any pending abbreviations or send the
InsertLeave signal back to Vim (which some of your plugins may depend on).
This doesn’t mean that
<C-c> is bad or should be avoided; it’s just the most
heavy handed of the two. Your mileage may vary.
We’ve got alternatives to the
<Esc> key now, so we can gradually begin phasing
it out of our workflow, but how about we make things a little more difficult for
ourselves? We could disable the
<Esc> key fully. Let’s take the training
To do this, we can just map
<Esc> to no operation, or
<nop>. There isn’t a
remap-in-every-mode command, so we need to drop both of these into our
which will cover all possibilities:
" Map `Escape` to ‘nothing’ in Normal, Visual, Select, Operator-pending modes noremap: <esc> <nop> " Map `Escape` to ‘nothing’ in Insert and Command modes noremap!: <esc> <nop>
Again, you’ll want to exercise some caution with this: there can be some unexpected side-effects as outlined in this Stack Overflow answer.
I know the Touch Bar can have a virtual Escape key, but there’s no real replacement for physical feedback. Plus
Esc is miles away, so it’s better in the longrun to have a more efficient alternative. ↩
Hi there, I’m Harry Roberts. I am an award-winning Consultant Web Performance Engineer, designer, developer, writer, and speaker from the UK. I write, Tweet, speak, and share code about measuring and improving site-speed. You should hire me.
I am available for hire to consult, advise, and develop with passionate product teams across the globe.
I specialise in large, product-based projects where performance, scalability, and maintainability are paramount.